The PKD (polycystic kidney disease, PKD) is a type of common hereditary renal disease, primary behavior is that there are a number of large and small bilateral renal cysts, cysts increased, finally destroy kidney structure and function, leading to end-stage renal failure.
Polycystic kidney disease is a type of disease involving multiple body systems, their clinical symptoms include renal and extrarenal manifestations conduct, including, kidney mainly for the following:
Renal cyst: Many symptoms of patients and is closely related to the development of renal cysts. Kidney cortex and spinal fluid exists multiple cyst diameter from a few millimeters to several centimeters, cyst size, number gradually increased with the progression. Grade male patients than patients of renal cysts.
Pain: Abdominal pain in the back or ribs is most common symptom of patients. Cyst symptoms gradually increases with age and was significantly, women are more common. Acute pain or pain suddenly intensified often incites hemorrhagic cysts, blood clots caused by stones or urinary tract obstruction and infection. Chronic pain especially greater traction renal cyst capsule or kidney, renal pedicle, causing compression of adjacent organs. Huge liver cyst can cause pain under the right rib.
Bleeding: Over 90% of patients with intracapsular bleeding or macroscopic hematuria. Mostly spontaneous, it can also be produced after strenuous exercise or trauma. The cause of hematuria cause there cyst ruptured blood vessels, stone, infection or cancer ect.La hematuria are usually self-limiting, 2-7dias may disappear. If bleeding continues for longer than 1 week or patient age over 50 years, need to overcome the possibility of llevamiento cancer.
Hypertension Patients with ADPKD one of the first most common manifestations. Normal renal function in younger patients with ADPKD, blood pressure greater than 50% of patients 140 / 90mmHg in ESRD patients with hypertension, nearly 100% .Baja blood pressure and kidney size, the correlation positive between the number of cysts, and increases with increasing age.
Renal: renal damage usually manifest early kidney function decreased concentration. Most patients in the growing cyst 40-60 years old can maintain normal renal function shortly kidney function empeza down, the rate of decline in glomerular filtration rate each year is about 4.4 ~ 5.5ml / min, from time to ESRD desacolla renal failure is about 10years.
Another 20% of patients are often associated with kidney stones, mostly uric acid and (or) calcium oxalate stones. Urinary tract infections are common complications cyst, retrograde infection is the main vía.En compared to general population, patients with carcinoma of ADPKD earlier age of onset renal cell, the symptom is clear, and prone multi-bilateral metastases sarcomatoid .