Diabetes is a chronic disease that is defined by high blood sugar levels. This disorder may be due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (Type 1 diabetes) or it may be caused by a problem in the responsiveness of tissues to insulin, called insulin resistance (Type 2 diabetes). With either disorder, patients always present symptom of polyuria. What are the causes?
To find the answer for this question, it is necessary to understand how the
kidneys function. Each of the kidneys are made up of approximately one million
functional units, known as nephrons.
The first step of urine production is the process of filtration. In this
procedure, large quantities of water and micro-molecules go from the plasma into
the first part of the nephron called Bowman's capsule.
Due to the nonspecific nature of the filtration, useful micro-molecules like
glucose, amino acids, and certain ions end up in the urine forming, which flows
into the renal tubules. In order to prevent the loss of these useful substances
from the body, the cells lining of the renal tubules will transfer these things
out of the forming urine and then back into the extracellular fluid. This
process is called reabsorption.
Normally, all of the glucose that is filtered will be reabsorbed. The
reabsorption of glucose involves transport proteins that require specific
However, for a person with Diabetes, the filtered glucose amount exceeds the
capacity of the renal tubules to reabsorb glucose. Consequently, glucose will
present in the urine.
Glucose is a solute that draws water into the urine by osmosis. So, high
blood sugar levels causes a person with Diabetes to produce a high quantity of
glucose-containing urine, or polyguria.
To have a good management of polyuria, people with Diabetes need to monitor
the blood sugar levels closely within the target range. Besides, it is important
to follow a proper diet and do moderate physical exercise. If you still need any
help on treatment, consult our online experts.