1. BUN -- small molecule toxins
It is an index of glomerular filtration function and dialysis
2. CR -- small molecule toxins
It is a more specific index than GFR.
3. UA -- small molecule toxins
The level of UA rises in cases of decreased kidney function and gout,
4. BMG -- middle molecule toxins
The BMG level become elevated in cases of reduced kidney function and tumor. Amyloidosis can be caused.
5. Cyc C -- middle molecule toxins
It is an ideal index of endogenic glomerular filtration function, which is
especially commonly used in children and dialysis patients. Amyloidosis can be
6. RBP -- toxins combined with protein
In case of decreased glomeurlar filtration function, the levels of RBP will
become elevated earlier than creatinine. The RBP levels become decreased in both
liver diseases and malnutrition.
7. HCY -- toxins combined with protein
An independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. An elevated level of
HCY can lead to cardiovascular disease.
8. IL-6 -- middle molecule toxins
An important index of acute inflammation and micro-inflammation. It is
associated with many complications of chronic kidney disease, such as
cardiovascular complications, malnutrition, Uremic anemia, etc.
9. PTH -- middle molecule toxins
Elevated levels of PTH can be detected in patients with Renal