Many patients are wondering what kind of disease they get when they present proteinuria (protein in urine). Actually, many diseases can lead to proteinuria. We can give the primary diagnosis on the basis of medical history, body examination and laboratory examinations etc.
1. If swelling, high blood pressure, hematuria (blood in urine) and
proteinuria occur together, you may probably get primary or secondary glomerulus
diseases. Secondary glomerulus diseases always have special clinical
manifestations of various secondary diseases. For example, if mass
proteinuria(>3.5g/24h), hypoproteinemia, severe swelling and hyperlipidaemia
(HLP) occur together, it is Nephrotic Syndrome.
2. If high blood pressure or other organs’ arteriosclerosis are accompanied
with proteinuria (protein in urine), it is likely to be glomerular
3. If proteinuria is accompanied with urinary tract irritation, pyuria and
bacteriuria, it is likely to be caused by urinary tract infection.
4. If proteinuria (protein in urine) occurs after taking medications like
tetracycline, aminoglycoside antibiotics, amphotericin B or analgesics, the
disease might be renal tubular interstitial nephritis.
5. Proteinuria which is accompanied with amino acid, urine glucose and mass
phosphaturia might be caused by Fanconi Syndrome or Cerebro Oculo Renal
6. If renal region has received radiotherapy and then proteinuria occurs, it
might be caused by radiation nephritis.
7. If unexplained Kidney Failure, anemia, hypercalcemia, weight loss or
patellofemoral pain are accompanied and the proteinuria is mainly monoclonial
immunoglobulin light chains, the disease might be multiple myeloma tumor.
8. Hemolytic anemia might present hemoglobinuria.
9. Polymyositis or extensive injuries might have symptom of
10. Besides proteinuria, there is abnormality in eyes and nerve deafness,
hereditary nephritis might be considered.
11. If you have numerous cysts in your kidneys, which is inherited from your
parents, it is Polycystic Kidney Disease.
What further checks should be done when proteinuria occurs?
1. Blood routine: including hemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells,
platelet count and WBC differential count.
2. Urine routine: including proteinuria qualitative and 24 hours urine
3. SDS-PAGE: analyzing the contents of proteinuria to be glomerular or
4. Biochemical Test of Blood: kidney and liver function, electrolyte and
5. Other checks such as B-ultrasound, CT, X-ray, Renal Biopsy and so on.