With the condition of Diabetic Nephropathy developing, the protection of renal function becomes the central problem gradually. The arrangement of diet should be taken into consideration certainly. Based on pathogenesis and clinical practice, four principles of diet are suggested for patients with Diabetic Nephropathy, which are regarded as a reference for patients to control their diet habits.
The intake of low proteins of high quality: the intake of proteins should be
controlled due to the increased burden of kidneys caused by excessive intake of
proteins. However, the protein, as a kind of necessary nutrient substance, is
essential for human bodies, especially essential amino-acid, which is obtained
from external instead of being produced by human body itself. Therefore,
proteins of high quality, which is full of essential amino-acid, should be
provided abundantly. Detail measures: vegetable proteins should be reduced as
much as possible; bean products are prohibited; staple food should be suitable;
animal proteins can be taken in reasonably, such as milk, eggs, fish, lean meat
and so on. Generally speaking, the intake of protein should be based on the
level of serum creatinine and endogenous creatinine clearance rate.
The diet of low-fat and suitable calorie: internal fat and protein will be
resolved due to the insufficiency of calorie, leading to the increase of serum
creatinine and urea. Too much intake of calorie has disadvantageous effects on
the control of blood sugar. Besides, the diet should be low fat due to the
development of Renal Failure, although fat can provide much calorie. Detail
measures: staple food can be replaced by Chinese yam and taro which are full of
starch. Wheat starch which is sold in supermarkets can be use to produce steamed
bun, steamed twisted roll and steamed stuffed bun, which is the best choice for
patients with DN due to its advantages: abundant calorie and few vegetable
The diet of high-calcium and low-phosphorous: high-calcium and
low-phosphorous, which is most common for renal insufficiency of DN, is a factor
for the development of renal failure. Therefore, high-calcium and
low-phosphorous should be paid much attention to. Detail measures: animal
viscera should be forbidden, such as brain, liver and kidney etc. Besides, dried
fruit should be limited.
The diet of high cellulose: high cellulose plays an important role in keeping
defecate unobstructed, excreting toxins and maintaining the metabolic balance of
human body. Detail measures: coarse food grain, taro, kelp, some fruit and
vegetable should be eaten more. What we should point out is that the presence of
electrolyte disorder is hyperkalemia. Besides, fruit and vegetable with high
potassium should be avoided.
In a word, dietary treatment is the basic of treatments for DN.