Nephrotic Syndrome is one of the most common glomerular diseases that affect children. Almost all children with this disorder have idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome characterized by diffuse foot process fusion on electron microscopy and minimal change disease (MCD), primary FSGS, or mesangial proliferation on light microscopy.
Most patients with MCD have favorable outcomes without complications.
However, a few of patients with FSGS suffer from severe and prolonged
proteinuria, and at higher risk for complications. Complications of NS can be
divided into two categories:
1. Disease-associated complications
a. Infections, such as peritonitis, sepsis, cellulitis, and chicken pox;
b. Thromboembolism, e.g. venous thromboembolism and pulmonary embolism;
c. Hypovolemic crisis including abdominal pain, hypotension, and
d. Cardiovascular problems, acute renal failure, anemia, and others.
These disease-associated complications mainly occur due to large loss of
plasma proteins in the urine of nephrotic children.
2. Drug-related complications
Drugs that have often been used to treat Nephrotic Syndrome such as
corticosteroids, alkylating agents, etc have treatment-related
The above are introduction of numerous complications of Nephrotic Syndrome in
children. Early detection and appropriate treatment of these condition can
improve the prognosis of patients with NS.
In 2012, the newest treatment for Nephrotic Syndrome is called immunotherapy.
This is a natural treatment without any side effects to patients, so it had
become the best option to control and treat complications of Nephrotic