Do you know how to analyse urine routine test? It is necessary for the patients with Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) to take regular medical test, such as blood routine test, urine routine test, renal function test and B-ultrasonic test or CT scan. However, patients usually learn their illness condition from what the doctor said. As patients need to take long term and regular tests, it is necessary for us to know how to analyse the urine routine test by ourselves, and then we have a more real cognition of our condition and know what we can do and what we can’t do.
A urine test checks different components of urine, a waste product made by
the kidneys. A urineroutine test may be done to help find the cause of symptoms.
The test can give information about your health and problems you may have. More
than 100 different tests can be done on urine. A urine routine test often
includes the following tests.
1. Color. Many things affect urine color, including fluid balance, diet,
medicines, and diseases. How dark or light the color is tells you how much water
is in it. Vitamin B supplements can turn urine bright yellow. Some medicines,
blackberries, beets, rhubarb, or blood in the urine can turn urine
2. Clarity. Urine is normally clear. Bacteria, blood, sperm, crystals, or
mucus can make urine look cloudy.
3. Odor. Urine does not smell very strong, but has a slightly "nutty" odor.
Some diseases cause a change in the odor of urine. For example, an infection
with E. coli bacteria can cause a bad odor, while diabetes or starvation can
cause a sweet, fruity odor.
4. Specific gravity. This checks the amount of substances in the urine. It
also shows how well the kidneys balance the amount of water in urine. The higher
the specific gravity, the more solid material is in the urine. When you drink a
lot of fluid, your kidneys make urine with a high amount of water in it which
has a low specific gravity. When you do not drink fluids, your kidneys make
urine with a small amount of water in it which has a high specific gravity.
5. pH. The pH is a measure of how acidic or alkaline (basic) the urine is. A
urine pH of 4 is strongly acidic, 7 is neutral (neither acidic nor alkaline),
and 9 is strongly alkaline. Sometimes the pH of urine is affected by certain
treatments. For example, your doctor may instruct you how to keep your urine
either acidic or alkaline to prevent some types of kidney stones from
6. Protein. Protein is normally not found in the urine. Fever, hard
exercise,pregnancy, and some diseases, especially kidney disease, may cause
protein to be in the urine.
7. Glucose. Glucose is the type of sugar found in blood. Normally there is
very little or no glucose in urine. When the blood sugar level is very high, as
in uncontrolleddiabetes, the sugar spills over into the urine. Glucose can also
be found in urine when the kidneys are damaged or diseased.
8. Nitrites. Bacteria that cause a urinary tract infection (UTI) make an
enzyme that changes urinary nitrates to nitrites. Nitrites in urine show a UTI
9. Leukocyte esterase (WBC esterase). Leukocyte esterase shows leukocytes
(white blood cells) in the urine. WBCs in the urine may mean a UTI is
10. Ketones. When fat is broken down for energy, the body makes substances
called ketones (or ketone bodies). These are passed in the urine. Large amounts
of ketones in the urine may mean a very serious condition, diabetic
ketoacidosis, is present. A diet low in sugars and starches (carbohydrates),
starvation, or severe vomiting may also cause ketones to be in the urine.
11. Microscopic analysis. In this test, urine is spun in a special machine
(centrifuge) so the solid materials (sediment) settle at the bottom. The
sediment is spread on a slide and looked at under a microscope. Things that may
be seen on the slide include:
12. Red or white blood cells. Blood cells are not found in urine normally.
Inflammation, disease, or injury to the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra
can cause blood in urine. Strenuous exercise, such as running a marathon, can
also cause blood in the urine. White blood cells may be a sign of infection or
13. Casts. Some types of kidney disease can cause plugs of material (called
casts) to form in tiny tubes in the kidneys. The casts then get flushed out in
the urine. Casts can be made of red or white blood cells, waxy or fatty
substances, or protein. The type of cast in the urine can help show what type of
kidney disease may be present.
14. Crystals. Healthy people often have only a few crystals in their urine. A
large number of crystals, or certain types of crystals, may mean kidney stones
are present or there is a problem with how the body is using food
15. Bacteria, yeast cells, or parasites. There are no bacteria, yeast cells,
orparasites in urine normally. If these are present, it can mean you have an