Most patients with HBV only pay attention to the inspection on liver function, but do not know that HBV also can lead to kidney injury. As a result, many patients may develop Renal Insufficiency. Therefore, early diagnosis of HBV-associated Nephropathy is very important for the patients with HBV.
1. Clinical symptoms
Most of the patients with HBV-associated Nephropathy have protein in urine
and gross hematuria rarely occurs. Most of the patients have high blood
2. Lab examination
The lab examination results in HBV-associated Nephropathy are as follows:
* Urine test is abnormal. Most of the patients have proteinuria and
microscopic hematuria. In some cases, the patients may develop Nephrotic
* Hypocomplementemia and cryoglobulinemia
* Globulin level increasing is a main clinical feature of HBV-associated
Nephropathy. If IgG and IgA levels increase, it proves that the lesion is in
3. Microscopic examination
Under microscopy, the pathological changes in HBV-associated Nephropathy can
present as Membranous Nephropathy, Mesangial Proliferative Nephropathy or
Membranous Proliferative Nephropathy. The glomerular basement membrane has
irregular incrassation along with mesangial cells increasing.
4. Immunologic examination
In immunological test, various kinds of immune complexes such as IgG, IgA,
IgM, C3, C4 etc deposit in glomeruli.
5. Electron microscope
Electron microscope can present electron dense deposits depositing in
mesangial area, glomerular basement membrane, the glomerular endothelial cells
The above are the main tests for HBV-associated Nephropathy. For the patients
with HBV, if they take related tests regularly so as to find if they have renal
injury as early as possible.