If PKD patients suffer from this disease for a long time, obvious creatinine increase can be found in clinical test; even serum creatinine can be higher than normal level, which means this disease develops into Renal Insufficiency or Uremia. All these can be expressed by higher serum creatinine than normal with lower urine creatinine than normal.
Renal cysts of PKD patients keep growing continuously, which can compress
surrounding renal tissue and damage healthy nephron. In the end stage PKD,
patients' kidneys are much larger than normal size, and no healthy nephron can
be seen through microscope.
After kidney was damaged by these cysts, injured renal inherent cells can
have phenotype change, forming pathological change, which can not only stimulate
renal mechanocyte to turn into myofibroblast, but also cause healthy renal
tissue to have the same pathological change. For this reason, such pathological
change spread from spot to area, then the whole kidney. This means this disease
develops into renal dysfunction stage. At this moment, due to continuous kidney
injury, renal ability of excreting waste declines, which cause toxin like
creatinine accumulation in body. Therefore, serum creatinine increases and urine
creatinine decreases on one hand and on the other filtrating rate of bilateral
kidneys reduce. Meanwhile, patients may also have symptoms of High Blood
Pressure, serious Edema and so on.