Ⅰ. What are the differences between Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) and Renal Cyst?
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) and Renal Cyst are two common types among
cystic diseases. Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is a kind of hereditary
disease, with numerous cysts in renal cortex and medulla. Autosomal dominant
inheritance, also known as adult PKD is more common. It usually happens after
patients get 40 years old. According to clinical observation, Polycystic Liver
Disease is also one of the complications of Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD).
However, Renal Cyst is also called single Renal Cyst, which usually occurs in
adult, especially people who are over 50 years old. One or few cysts with
diameter of 0.5cm to several centimeters can be found on unilateral or bilateral
kidneys. Cysts are isolated round balls, and most of them are located in
Ⅱ. What is Polycystic Kidney Disease?
Polycystic Kidney Disease is a kind of congenital disease, involving
bilateral kidneys. Cysts with various sizes bestrew the kidney, and some of them
can be open to each other. These cysts can enlarge kidney volume and press renal
parenchyma, causing renal function injury until Chronic Renal Failure happens.
Most patients have family history with various manifestations.
Ⅲ. Classification of Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD)
Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is categorized as two types. One is infant
type which is always accompanied by other congenital malformation. Most sock
children die in a few months after birth. The other one is Adult type which
always occurs among middle-aged patients, usually accompanied by intracranial
aneurysm and other cystic lesions of liver, spleen, pancreas, ovary, bone and
Ⅳ. How about the hereditary regulation of adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) is common among clinical cases, with
morbidity of 0.1% to 0.2%, following the regulation of autosomal dominant
inheritance. It occupies 5% to 10% of End Stage Renal Failure.
Firstly, equal morbidity for male and female
Secondly, children have 50% chance to carry cyst gene if one of their parents
has Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD), and this number increases to 75% if both
parents have Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD).
Thirdly, children will not carry cyst gene if they don’t get Polycystic
Kidney Disease (PKD), and their next generation will not get this disease, too.
Seldom symptoms can be found before this disease occurrence, but illness
condition can develop rapidly once symptoms appear. Polycystic Kidney Disease
(PKD) is one of common causes of Uremia patients at middle age, and it is also
one of the most common hereditary Kidney Disease.
Ⅴ. What are Clinical manifestations for Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
Firstly, pain on waist and abdomen is initial symptom for most patients,
happening constantly or transiently. Painful feeling will be more serious after
Secondly, blood urine is also an initial symptom, and most of Polycystic
Kidney Disease (PKD) patients may have this symptom, expressed by intermittent
painless gross Haematuria.
Thirdly, abdominal masses can be touched on bilateral upper abdomen with
Fourthly, Hypertension accompanied with vertigo and headache usually
Fifthly, in Renal Insufficiency stage, obvious abnormality can be found
through renal function tests. Renal Deficiency data are abnormal obviously in
renal function test; with low but stable urine gravity.
Sixth, about 1/4 patients have renal colic, frequent urination, urgent
urination and other discomforts.